Glossary of Lean Production Related Terms The following contains a sometimes commented glossary of terms related to lean manufacturing or production management with a brief definition. The list includes a lot of Japanese terms, although almost all of them can also easily be explained using English terms, which are also given. This list is ever expanding but never complete, as the tendency to invent new terms or buzzwords outstrips the ability of any lexicographer.
Program Files and Data Sources Abstract: A striking feature of many financial crises is the collapse of exports relative to output. In the financial crisis, real world exports plunged 17 percent while GDP fell 5 percent.
a. the structure of the industry in which the firm competes. b. resources that are valuable, rare, costly to imitate, and non-substitutable. c. all the resources and capabilities that the firm has at its disposal. grupobittia.com is a legal online writing service established in the year by a group of Master and Ph.D. students who were then studying in UK. Inter-organizational communication has been documented as a critical factor in promoting strategic collaboration among firms. In this paper, we seek to extend the stream of research in supply chain management by systematically investigating the antecedents and performance outcomes of inter-organizational communication.
This paper examines whether the drying up of trade finance can help explain the large drops in exports relative to output. We overcome measurement and endogeneity issues by using a unique data set, covering the Japanese financial crises of the s, which enables us to match exporters with the main bank that provides them with trade finance.
Our point Explain the keiretsu inter structure and discuss are economically and statistically significant, suggesting that trade finance accounts for about one-third of the decline in Japanese exports in the financial crises of the s.
Download full PDF paper here Abstract: While there is no question that demand played a major part in the decline in world trade, there is increasing evidence that the liquidity contractions that rocked the financial world also played a part.
Firm level evidence indicates that exporters whose financial institutions became unhealthy cut back on exports more than other firms, and imports declined more in sectors that had greater external financial dependence. This paper shows that some of these shocks may also have appeared in price movements.
Export prices rose relative to domestic manufacturing prices during the crisis, and the prices of seaborne imports and exports—which are more sensitive to financial shocks—rose relative to goods sent by land or air. The agglomeration force behind the New Economic Geography literature initiated by Krugman is based on the notion that larger markets should have a lower variety adjusted price index.
Despite his Nobel Prize, there have been no tests of this idea. This paper represents the first such test. Using a rich dataset covering million purchases of grocery items, we find that after controlling for store and shopping effects: In short, Krugman was right.
Product Creation and Destruction: This paper describes the extent and cyclicality of product creation and destruction in a large sector of the U. We find four times more entry and exit in product markets than is typically found in labor markets because most product turnover happens within the boundaries of the firm.
Net product creation is strongly pro-cyclical, but contrary to the behavior of labor flows, it is primarily driven by creation rather than destruction. High rates of innovation are also accompanied by substantial price volatility of products. These facts suggest that the CPI deviates from a true cost-of-living index in three important dimensions.
The quality bias that arises as new goods replace outdated ones causes the CPI to overstate inflation by 0. First, since David Caplovitz wrote his path-breaking book, The Poor Pay More,numerous researchers have confirmed that the poor indeed pay more than households of higher income for the goods and services they purchase.
Second, official poverty rates as measured by the U. Census have remained essentially flat since the late s, raising questions about the success of the policies implemented to reduce poverty.
In this paper we revisit these two facts by paying close attention to the price data underlying these findings. By examining scanner data on thousands of household purchases we find that the poor pay less—not more—for the goods they purchase.
In addition, by extending the advances on price measurement in the recent decade back to the s, we find that current poverty rates are less than half of the official numbers. This finding underscores the importance of correctly measuring the evolution of prices to determine the appropriate poverty thresholds over time.
Both findings are contrary to the conventional wisdom established in the last few decades. The empirical literature in international finance has produced three key results about international price deviations: The data underlying these results are mostly comprised of price indexes and price surveys of goods that may not be identical internationally.
In this paper, we revisit these three stylized facts using massive amounts of US and Canadian data that share a common barcode classification.
We find that none of these three main stylized facts survive. We use our barcode level data to replicate prior work and explain what assumptions caused researchers to find different results from those we find in this paper. Overall, our work is supportive of simple pricing models where the degree of market segmentation across the border is similar to that within borders.
Between andthe Japanese Import Price Index registered a decline of almost 9 percent and Japan entered a period of deflation.
We show that much of the correlation between import prices and domestic prices was due to formula biases.
A Laspeyres version of the IPI would have risen 1 percentage point per year faster than the official index. Second we show that Chinese prices did not behave differently from the prices of other importers.
Although Chinese prices are substantially lower than the prices of other exporters, they do not exhibit a differential trend.
However, we estimate that the typical price per unit quality of a Chinese exporter fell by half between and Thus the explosive growth in Chinese exports is attributable to growth in the quality of Chinese exports and the increase in new products being exported by China.
Optimal Tariffs and Market Power:In the case of dynamic capabilities for product development, another part of the Mitsubishi keiretsu, Mitsubishi Corporation, recently established a “Business Innovation Group” (see Figure 1) to help development of new business fields with an explicit medium and long-term perspective.
Keiretsu Translated literally, it means headless combine Keiretsu is a Japanese word which, translated literally, means headless combine.
It is the name given to a form of corporate structure in which a number of organisations link together, usually by taking small stakes in each other and usually as a result of having a close business relationship, often as suppliers to each other.
Capital structure: The mix of the various debt and equity capital maintained by a firm. It is also called financial structure. It is also called financial structure. The composition of a corporation's securities used to finance its investment activities; the relative proportions of .
Glossary of Lean Production Related Terms The following contains a (sometimes commented) glossary of terms related to lean manufacturing or production management with a brief definition. The list includes a lot of Japanese terms, although almost all of them can also easily be explained using English terms, which are also given.
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP): The CSCMP is a not-for-profit professional business organization consisting of individuals throughout the world who have interests and/or responsibilities in logistics and supply chain management, and the related functions that make up these professions.
Its purpose is to enhance the. The Oxford Handbook of Business Groups Business Groups—large, diversified, often family-controlled organizations, such as the Japanese keiretsu and the Korean chaebol—have played a significant role in national economic growth, especially in emerging grupobittia.com: $