Authored by Marie Mulligan, Richard Geggie and nearly 40 specialist contributors, this book is the perfect resource for families seeking Information about healing practices that are available to help their kids live with or in some cases overcome the challenges they face. The Information in this book has been organized in a way that helps busy parents find the Information they need quickly and easily.
The treatment of homosexuality is a case in point. In no other diagnostic area can one find greater confusion between social mores and scientific judgment.
Homosexuality, which traveled from sin to sickness, was illegal and immoral almost everywhere in the United States until recent years.
Until recently, homosexuals might have committed suicide because they were doomed to a life of depression and misery. These people suffered because they were taught to suffer, first by their society at large and then by the scientific community, which declared that homosexuality was a medical illness.
The Treatment of Homosexuality as a Disease Untilwhen the American Psychiatric Association officially removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders, the body politic feared homosexual behavior. It did everything possible to prevent homosexuality, control it, and when nothing else worked, punish it.
As perceptions of the "causes" of homosexuality reflected the fears of society, so the treatment reflected the appropriate punishments for the transgressions. The psychiatric and psychological establishments had previously invented theories to explain the genesis of homosexual behavior.
Freud suggested psychodynamic factors. Rado, objecting to Freud's acceptance of bisexuality, originated the phobic theory of homosexuality. The behaviorist school in psychology also attempted to convert gay people into heterosexuals. Some of their treatments were caustic.
Three forms of aversion therapy were used. The first was electrical aversion therapy, in which an electric shock was administered to the patient if he responded erotically to a picture of a new man.
Another technique was called covert sensitization, in which disgust and images of vomit were thought to cure homosexual desire. The third type of aversion therapy used the drug apomorphine, which induces nausea in the patient. Gay liberationists viewed these aversive procedures as punishment, not treatment.
Davison, who later rejected his early work, called his system "Playboy therapy," in which a gay man masturbated to pictures of naked women. A good review of the aversion therapy literature is provided by Bancroft, who himself contributed significantly to the aversion therapy literature.
Masters and Johnson also attempted to change the sexual orientation of gay people. Perhaps the most bizarre attempt to reorient the sexual orientation of a gay man was performed by Heath at Tulane University in Heath implanted electrodes into the brain of a gay man.
The patient was then placed in a room with a woman prostitute, who was hired to seduce him. As the same time, Heath stimulated the pleasure centers in the brain of the man. This attempt was not a success. Underlying these attempts by psychiatry and psychology to change sexual orientation is a basic philosophical belief: Of those gay people who volunteered for "cure," few were able to claim a change in their sexual orientation.
Thus, these homosexuals could be seen as "failures," and invariably, researchers blamed the patient's themselves for not been sufficiently motivated. Never did they seriously consider the possibility that sexual orientation unfolds naturally like the buds of a flower, rather than as a result of subterranean psychical forces.
The Positive Approach to Psychotherapy With Gay People The formation of gay counseling centers signified one of the most significant steps for providing an alternative form of treatment for gay people.
Some were staffed only by peer counselors, and others were staffed by both peers and professionals. All provided low-cost service to gay people who were experiencing emotional distress but did not want to change their sexual orientation. Whereas previously the professional community had been obsessed with the etiology and cure of homosexuality, the gay counseling centers ignored these issues and treated the person.There are dozens of personality theories.
It is possible to introduce only a few of the most influential. For clarity, we will confine ourselves to three broad perspectives: (1) Psychodynamic Theories, which focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles, (2) Behavioristic Theories, which place greater importance on the external environment and on the.
"This is a most thoughtful and clearly written review of brief psychodynamically oriented psychotherapies.
The authors explore a wide range of therapies from a conceptual framework, allowing for comparison and critical evaluation of each approach. Behavioral techniques In contrast to the psychodynamic approach, behavior-oriented therapy is geared toward helping people see their problems as learned behaviors that can be modified, without looking for unconscious motivations or hidden meanings.
The psychodynamic approach takes what is effectively a reductionist view of the human mind and our own self-control over our destinies. Moreover, psychodynamic theories take a purely internalised view of behavior, ignoring external factors such as the biological influences of genetics on our predisposition to some mental problems.
Psychodynamic therapy is a form of therapy with a focus on a holistic perspective of the client. It aims to explore the client’s needs, urges, and desires. Psychodynamic psychotherapy or psychoanalytic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension..
Psychodynamic psychotherapy relies on the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist more than other forms of depth psychology.