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An endoscope can consist of: The light source is normally outside the body and the light is typically directed via an optical fiber system. Modern instruments may be videoscopes, with no eyepiece.
A camera transmits image to a screen for image capture. Patients undergoing the procedure may be offered sedationwhich includes its own risks. History[ edit ] Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter", an early endoscope The first endoscope was developed in by Philipp Bozzini in Mainz with his introduction of a "Lichtleiter" light conductor "for the examinations of the canals and cavities of the human body".
The first such lights were external although sufficiently capable of illumination to allow cystoscopy, hysteroscopy and sigmoidoscopy as well as examination of the nasal and later thoracic cavities as was being performed routinely in human patients by Sir Francis Cruise using his own commercially available endoscope by in the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Dublin, Ireland.
This proved useful both medically and industrially, and subsequent research led to further improvements in image quality. Further innovations included using additional fibres to channel light to the objective end from a powerful external source, thereby achieving the high level of full spectrum illumination that was needed for detailed viewing, and colour photography.
Alongside the advances to the optics, the ability to 'steer' the tip was developed, as well as innovations in remotely operated surgical instruments contained within the body of the endoscope itself. This was the beginning of "key-hole surgery" as we know it today.
A bundle of say 50, fibers gives effectively only a 50,pixel image, and continued flexing from use breaks fibers and so progressively loses pixels. Eventually so many are lost that the whole bundle must be replaced at considerable expense. Harold Hopkins realised that any further optical improvement would require a different approach.
Previous rigid endoscopes suffered from low light transmittance and poor image quality. The surgical requirement of passing surgical tools as well as the illumination system within the endoscope's tube - which itself is limited in dimensions by the human body - left very little room for the imaging optics.
The tiny lenses of a conventional system required supporting rings that would obscure the bulk of the lens area; they were difficult to manufacture and assemble and optically nearly useless. These fitted exactly the endoscope's tube, making them self-aligning, and required no other support.
This allowed the little lenses to be dispensed with altogether. The rod-lenses were much easier to handle and used the maximum possible diameter available. With a high quality 'telescope' of such small diameter the tools and illumination system could be comfortably housed within an outer tube.
Once again it was Karl Storz who produced the first of these new endoscopes as part of a long and productive partnership between the two men.
Harold Hopkins was recognized and honoured for his advancement of medical-optic by the medical community worldwide. It formed a major part of the citation when he was awarded the Rumford Medal by the Royal Society in By measuring absorption of light by the blood by passing the light through one fibre and collecting the light through another fibre a doctor can estimate the proportion of haemoglobin in the blood and diagnose ulceration in the stomach.
Reprocessing endoscopes involves over individuals steps. In the UK, stringent guidelines exist regarding the decontamination and disinfection of flexible endoscopes, the most recent being CfPP 01—06, released in  Rigid endoscopes, such as an Arthroscope, can be sterilized in the same way as surgical instruments, whereas heat labile flexible endoscopes cannot.
With the application of robotic systems, telesurgery was introduced as the surgeon could be at a site far removed from the patient. The first transatlantic surgery has been called the Lindbergh Operation. Recent developments  have allowed the manufacture of endoscopes inexpensive enough to be used on a single patient only.
It is meeting a growing demand to lessen the risk of cross contamination and hospital acquired diseases.Take your home automation to the next level with Best Buy. Shop for the latest smart home technology and get great deals on surveillance packages, smart doorbells, locks and much more.
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